Born Anya Kuschenko, this attractive redhead met Britisher Alex Chapman at a rave in London and married him in 2002. After they split up, Anna moved to New York City to run a real estate company. But for all that time, she was actually in the family business. Anna's father TKTK was one of the KGB's highest-ranking agents, and he tasked his daughter with extracting as much government information as she could by fair means or foul. She was reportedly fairly successful until a meeting with an undercover FBI agent exposed her spy ring and she was arrested. Chapman was traded back to Russia along with a group of other agents in exchange for a quartet of Western spies caught there. The latest news on Chapman is that she's become a Trump supporting Instagram model.
Journalism is a popular cover identity for spies - nobody thinks twice when they see a reporter nosing around, after all. Oleg Kalugin was recruited by the KGB at Leningrad State University, taught English and sent to the United States in 1958, where he enrolled at Columbia as a journalism major courtesy of a Fulbright scholarship. He spent seven years there until he was reassigned to the Soviet embassy in Washington as deputy press officer. His real job was managing the operations of spies in the West, including organizing assassinations and other illegal missions. After returning to Russia, he became disillusioned about the KGB's activities and eventually was stripped of his rank and left in exile back to the States.
One of the most fascinating projects in Russian spy history was known as the "Illegals Program," a long-term mission to embed agents so deeply in American society that they would be unidentifiable. For most of their lives, their neighbors in the Capitol Hill district of Seattle knew Michael Zottoli and Patricia Mills as a quiet couple from upstate New York who worked at a telecommunications company in Bellevue. But in reality, they were a pair of Americanized Russian agents named Mikhail Kutzik and Natalia Pereverzeva who were engaged in still mysterious activities for the Russian state. The pair were busted with an apartment full of codebreaking equipment and traded back to Russia in a prisoner swap.
Born in Lithuania as Ruvelis Sobolevicius, Robert Soblen was one of the most fascinating Communist spies of his era. A hardline Trotskyite, Soblen and his brother Jack started working with the Soviet secret police in 1931 and were given permission to move to the United States in exchange for serving as intelligence assets there. Starting in 1941, he transmitted a wide variety of details back to the USSR, including shots of a nuclear test site and OSS information from World War II. He was arrested in 1960 and convicted of espionage, but managed to flee to Israel, where he claimed to be immune from extradition due to the Law of Return. His defense didn't fly and he committed suicide rather than return to the States and face his punishment.
Okay, yes, Karl Koecher wasn't ethnically Russian (he was born in Czechoslovakia), but his allegiance to the USSR definitely earns him a spot on this list. As a young man, he emigrated to the United States to become an embedded agent, and managed to get hired by the CIA in 1973 as a translator/ analyst. From there, he delivered numerous top secret documents to both the KGB and the Czech intelligence services. After seven years of double agenting, Koecher was finally hunted down by the FBI and arrested. When he wasn't leaking information, Koecher liked to frequent swinger's clubs and use his liaisons there to recruit Americans to the KGB's service.
The most recent bust on our list, Evgeny Buryakov was shipped back to Russia in April of 2017. It's fairly common for Russian spies to be closely connected with that country's famously corrupt banking industry, and Buryakov was ostensibly in the States representing Vnesheconombank, the government-owned Russian bank of national development. In reality, his mission was to recruit Americans to serve as intelligence assets as well as pass along information about Russian sanctions. Starting in 2013, an undercover FBI agent began posing as an industry informant and passing Buryakov binders with hidden recording devices, which let the Bureau gather up enough evidence to arrest him.
One of the earliest Soviet spies to operate in the United States, Jacob Golos was born Jacob Golosenko in the Ukraine but shortened his name after the NKV (the precursor to the KGB) sent him to the West to foment revolution. Born of Jewish parents, Golos was committed to the cause of revolution, and when he reached the United States he became an organizer for the Socialist Party of America. This on it's own would be no crime, but while he was here he became a vital asset for Russian intelligence services, producing false passports and identification documents for KGB agents and even recruiting writer Ernest Hemingway to spy for his country.
Diplomats are often used as cover identities for espionage operatives, and Russia was notorious for that practice. In his civilian identity, Anatoly Borisovich Gromov was the First Secretary at the Soviet embassy in Washington. But that was not his real name - he was born Anatoly Gorsky, and joined the secret police in 1928. He was so good at narcing out his own people that he was given a post in foreign intelligence, and in Britain he managed agents from the embassy that infiltrated the British nuclear bomb project. His transfer to America wasn't as successful - within a year, the FBI had him tagged as an agent and Moscow recalled him to friendly soil before he could be arrested.
Another set of spies rounded up as part of the Illegals Program that was busted by the FBI in 2010, Bezrukov and Vavilova had some of the most carefully laid cover identities in spycraft history. As Donald Heathfield and Tracey Foley, they built an entire life for themselves in the West that extended to parenting two children, Tim and Alex. The boys had absolutely no idea that their parents weren't who they said they were until the Bureau busted down their door. Bezrukov and Vavilova had stolen the identities of a pair of deceased Canadians in the 1980s and painstakingly worked to infiltrate high levels of American business and government. The help of a mole in Russian intelligence targeted them for surveillance and it wasn't long before their whole world collapsed around them.
One of the most hailed spies in Russian history, Vasily Zarubin served the USSR all over the world. When Hitler came to power in Germany, Zarubin and his wife were sent in to destabilize the Nazis and recruit sympathizers. In 1941, Stalin was nervous that the United States would bend the knee to appease Hitler, so he sent the Zarubins to the States to monitor political communication there. He used KGB funds to start a music publishing company as a cover business, but the FBI was on his tail almost immediately and in 1944 he was recalled to Moscow and replaced. Back in Russia, he was named deputy chief of foreign intelligence and helped organize future cold war spy operations.